Kashmir Journal of Science http://kjs.org.pk/index.php/kjs <p>Kashmir Journal of Science (<strong>ISSN: 2958-7832</strong>) is an open access official multidiceplinary journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The journal uses Anonymous Peer Review Policy and provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge for any kind of lawful purpose. The journal publishes quarterly (March, June, September, and December) articles on the following areas of science in both theoretical and applied research.</p> <p><strong>Biotechnology Botany Chemistry </strong></p> <p><strong>Computer Science Geology Mathematics </strong></p> <p><strong>Physics Statistics Zoology</strong></p> Faculty of Science, The University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan en-US Kashmir Journal of Science 2958-7832 A Bayesian Look at The Rare Event Distribution http://kjs.org.pk/index.php/kjs/article/view/21 <p>In this article, Bayesian analysis of parameter () of Poisson distribution under simulated data is conducted. Posterior distributions are obtained under two informative (Gamma and Exponential) and two non-informative (Uniform and Jaffrey’s) priors. Five loss functions including Square Error Loss Function (SELF), Weighted Square Error Loss Function (WSELF), LINEX Loss Function (LLF), Quasi Quadratic Loss Function (QQLF) and Precautionary Loss Function (PLF) are used to obtain the Bayes estimators and risks associated with them to study the performance and behavior of the Poisson parameter (). From this simulation study we found that gamma distribution is suitable prior for Poisson and Quasi Quadratic Loss Function provides efficient results compared to other Loss functions with minimum risks associated with these estimates.</p> Ehtasham Ahmed Zahoor Syeda Arjumand Javaid Copyright (c) 2023 Kashmir Journal of Science 2023-03-30 2023-03-30 2 1 43 59 Ipomoea sagittifolia Burm.f. (Convolvulaceae)- New Record for Flora of Nepal http://kjs.org.pk/index.php/kjs/article/view/22 <p>The genus <em>Ipomoea</em> (Convolvulaceae) is represented by twenty-seven species in Nepal. Present study has added one more record, <em>Ipomoea sagittifolia </em>Burm.f. A detailed description along with ecology, distribution and colour photo plate has been provided. Distinguishing character of this species are deeply cordate leaves with purple blotches on the center and bears purplish margin, white large flowers with pinkish anther lobes.</p> Sangeeta Rajbhandary Copyright (c) 2023 Kashmir Journal of Science 2023-03-30 2023-03-30 2 1 1 5 An Ethnobotanical survey of wild plants of Samror and Khuiratta, District Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir http://kjs.org.pk/index.php/kjs/article/view/17 <p>An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document the traditional and medicinal uses of wild flora of Samror and Khuiratta, District Kotli Azad Kashmir. Traditional uses of different plant species were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire, interviews, and direct observations during fieldwork. A total of 100 medicinal plants belonging to 48 plant families were recorded. The most dominant plant families were Lamiaceae with 9 species followed by Poaceae and Asteraceae with 6 species respectively. Leaves were the most frequently used part of a plant against common diseases. Plants with high use value were <em>Oxalis corniculata </em>L<em>, Mentha royleana </em>Benth<em>, Cannabis sativa </em>L and <em>Malva sylvestris </em>L<em>.</em> There is a need to record overall diversity, ethnomedicinal applications and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants of the area.</p> Tariq Saiffullah Copyright (c) 2023 Kashmir Journal of Science 2023-03-30 2023-03-30 2 1 6 24 Taxonomic Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of some Mosses of District Bagh Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Western Himalaya), Pakistan http://kjs.org.pk/index.php/kjs/article/view/14 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;District Bagh is a biodiversity rich area of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. However, the exploration of bryoflora has been neglected due to many reasons. The current research project is the first attempt to explore moss flora of the area. As part of the ongoing studies, five different sites were surveyed during March to June, 2020. Collected species were identified by comparing with different bryophytes floras. The taxonomic studies of the species was carried out by using stereomicroscope, compound microscope and photomicroscope. Antibacterial activity of three different solvent extracts (ethanol, methanol and water) was evaluated against <em>Acromobacter xyloxoxidans</em> (Gram-negative) and <em>Bacillus licheniformis</em> (Gram-positive) bacteria by using disc diffusion method. A total of eight species were collected between 1510-1980m altitudes. The results of antibacterial activity showed that different moss extract retained different impact on the growth of bacteria. It has been find out that ethanol extract exhibited highest potency as compared to other solvents against both bacterial strains. In general, Gram- negative bacteria showed more resistance as compared to Gram- positive bacteria. The aqueous extract of most of the species was inactive against both tested bacterial strains. All extracts of <em>Phelonotis fontana</em>, <em>Tortula sabulata</em> and <em>Grimmia</em> <em>montana</em> showed positive results against both bacterial, whereas maximum susceptibility was demonstrated by <em>Erythrodontum</em> <em>julaceum</em>. Present study will open fresh avenue to use these identified moss species for the biochemical characterization.</p> Shamsa Nazir M Nazir Kayani Copyright (c) 2023 Kashmir Journal of Science 2023-03-30 2023-03-30 2 1 25 42 Antibacterial activity of three indigenous plants against pathogenic bacteria http://kjs.org.pk/index.php/kjs/article/view/20 <p> </p> <p>In recent years, there has been a growing interest in researching and developing new <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/pharmacology-toxicology-and-pharmaceutical-science/microbicides">antimicrobial agents</a> from various sources to combat microbial resistance. Therefore, a greater attention has been paid to antimicrobial activity screening and evaluating methods. Microbial resistance is a major issue now days and is still a challenging situation for the whole globe. Scientists and researchers everywhere in the world are trying to cope this situation. Microbial resistance against drugs makes the microbes more active and more protective. To breakdown this protective zone WHO is still monitoring the drugs and modifying their formulas according to the needs. As well as new drugs from different sources have been discovered. Plants were the major source of drugs in past and also in present century. In present study three plants extracts (i.e., <em>Carissa opaca</em>, <em>Ferula asafoetida</em> and <em>Cannabis sativa</em>) were used against five bacterial strains named <em>Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes</em>. All the drugs were applied in the form of aqueous extract via well diffusion method and zone of inhibition were measured and photographed after 24 hours. The antibacterial effect of floral drugs in this study showed less or more activity. In conclusion, these antibacterial drugs shown killing of bacteria, on different concentrations zones of inhibition measured were of different size. All these selected plants shown a direct relation with concentration of extract, higher the concentration of extract gives larger zone of inhibition, hence</p> <p>these plants extracts are beneficial with respect to their accessibility as well as economically favorable and can proved a better approach in future.</p> Anila Siddique Aneesa Shafique Iqra Younas Ansar Ahmed Abbasi Usamn Ali Tauqeer Ahmed Mughal Rabiah Shoukat saiqa Khushal Rameez Nisar Copyright (c) 2023 Kashmir Journal of Science 2023-03-30 2023-03-30 2 1 60 69