Kashmir Journal of Science 2023-11-25T02:00:04-05:00 Dr. Ghulam Murtaza Open Journal Systems <p>Kashmir Journal of Science (<strong>ISSN: 2958-7832</strong>) is an open access official multidiceplinary journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The journal uses "Anonymous Reviewer/Disclosed Author" mode of review and provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge for any kind of lawful purpose. The journal publishes quarterly (March, June, September, and December) articles on the following areas of science in both theoretical and applied research.</p> <p><strong>Biotechnology Botany Chemistry </strong></p> <p><strong>Computer Science Geology Mathematics </strong></p> <p><strong>Physics Statistics Zoology</strong></p> Ethnobotanical and Ecological Study of Taraxacum Officinale F.H. Wigger in Upper Hunza (Gojal) 2023-06-07T15:56:42-04:00 Ishrat Fatima Syed Rizwan Abbas <p>Taraxacum Officinale F.H. Wigger is a medicinal herb, having many medicinal uses. Our studies showed variations in selected five zones in ethnobotanical and its morphological parameters. Mostly this herb is used for skin disorders in all zones but with the variations in zones, its medicinal uses have been changed i.e: &nbsp;Diabetes, Jundis, and TB. Also, variations are noticd in administration from zone-1 to zone-5.&nbsp; These studies showed the Taraxacum Officinale F.H. Wigger Zone-4 is the best for its propagation because in zone-4 its secondry compounds are matured maximum that’s why it showed best medicinal uses. &nbsp;Furthermore, this is a herb uses for the therapy of different skin disorders and it protects the skin from harmful rays of sunlight. This plant is also used in cosmetics.</p> 2023-11-25T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Syed Rizwan Abbas Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Habitat Use by Royle’s Pika (Ochotona roylei) in Jagran Forest Range of District Neelum, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan 2023-11-04T21:43:17-04:00 Ghulam Ali Nasra Ashraf Shahida Rasheed Saba Khalid Rukhsana Khatoon Nuzhat Shafi Nousheen Irshad Sidra Qayoom <p>Royle's pika (<em>Ochotona roylei</em>) is an important species in the Himalayas. Understanding the relationships between this species and its environment is essential for its sustainable management. The current study was conducted in the Jagran Forest Range, a potential area of Royle’s pika distribution in the Neelum district of Azad Jammu &amp; Kashmir (AJ&amp;K). To examine how Royle's pika uses and prefers its habitat, indirect signs, such as counting pellet groups, and direct observations using a focused scan-sampling method were employed. To understand the seasonal patterns of habitat use, surveys were conducted in three different seasons: summer, monsoon, and autumn, from April to November 2022. The habitat preference and other topographic factors, such as elevation, slope, aspect, and plant cover, were analyzed in three major localities and nine different types of habitats within the study area. Royle’s pika was observed to be distributed in 86 out of 159 sampling sites in the Jagran Forest Range, within an altitudinal range of 2663-4282 meters above sea level (asl). The use of different habitat types by Royle’s pika was significantly different among the three seasons (F = 28.11; df = 2, 16; <em>p&lt;0.001</em>). Pikas predominantly use higher altitudes (3000 – 3500 m) with significant differences among seasons (F = 45.133; df = 2, 12; <em>p&lt;0.001</em>) and localities (F = 71.912; df = 2, 12; <em>p&lt;0.001</em>). Moreover, they showed a high preference for herbs in the study area (IEI = 0.238). Royle’s pika appears to select habitats which provide both food and cover simultaneously regardless of the season.</p> 2023-11-25T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ghulam Ali, Nasra Ashraf, Shahida Rasheed, Saba Khalid, Rukhsana Khatoon, Nuzhat Shafi, Nousheen Irshad, Sidra Qayoom Determination of secretor and non-secretor status in relation to ABO blood groups in population of Rawalakot city, Azad Jammu and Kashmir 2023-11-18T06:05:05-05:00 shahbaz Muhammad Amna Beenash, lubna rashid Badra Younis <p>The present study was designed to find out the status of the secretor and non-secretor in Rawalakot city of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&amp;K). Blood and saliva were collected from 200 individuals of the study area during 2021-22. Secretor and non-secretor status were determined by Hemagglutination inhibition method. During this study status of secretor and non-secretor has been observed for gender, caste, and ABO blood group. Out of a total of 200 sampled individuals 142 (71%) individuals were secretors, while the remaining 58(27%) were non-secretors. Females (63.5%) were more secretors as compared to males (36.5%). The highest percentages of secretors were observed in Mughals (79.2%) and the lowest in Hashmi (65.0%). The highest numbers of secretors were observed in blood group B (37.0%), while the lowest in Blood group A (20.5%). The study concluded that secretors were more common in Rawalakot city as compared to non-secretors. This information would be helpful in healthcare management in the area.</p> <p><strong><br /></strong></p> 2023-11-25T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 shahbaz Muhammad, Ms, Amna Beenash, , lubna rashid, Badra Younis The Structural Investigation and Photocatalytic Application of Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Derived ZnAl2O4 Spinel for the Degradation of Organic Dye 2023-03-29T14:01:09-04:00 Muhammad Javed Naeem Akbar <p>Herein, we have synthesized ZnAl<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> aluminate by the sol-gel auto-combustion method and sintered at 900 °C. Rietveld refinement analysis of XRD data confirmed the formation of the normal spinel structure with the Fd3m space group. The crystallite size was calculated by using the Debye-Sherrer and W-H plots and was found to be 78 and 91 nm, respectively. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) investigation revealed the polyhedral texture of synthesized aluminates with considerable porosity. The optical properties were investigated by using a UV-Vis spectrometer and the band gap was approximated to be 3.4 eV. The synthesized aluminate was also employed for the degradation of Crystal violet (CV) organic dye pollutant under solar light irradiation. It has been observed that the percentage degradation of dye was increased with contact time and significant removal of 80 % was achieved after 120 minutes. The degradation process followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. These insights might be significantly advantageous for environmental applications, including dye removal from aqueous solutions for wastewater remediation.</p> 2023-11-25T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Javed, Naeem Akbar Extraction, Isolation and Biosynthetic Scheme of Terpenoids and its Pharmaceutical Activities in Drug Designing and Drug Development 2023-08-20T04:25:23-04:00 Hakeemullah Yousaf Khan Abdul Sattar Muhammad Nawaz Syed Amin Ullah Muhammad Shakir Naeem Madeeha Bibi <p>A large number of biological and pharmacological effects can be attributed to a class of naturally occurring compounds called terpenoids, also known as terpenes. These methods have shown promise in treating a wide range of infectious disorders, from bacteria and fungi to inflammation and even cancer. Terpenoids are built from two separate five-carbon-atom "backbones" in their most basic form. Monoterpenes (C10), sesquiterpenes (C15), diterpenes (C20), and sesterterpenes (C25) are only a few examples of the various terpenoid classes that may be broken down by the number of carbon atoms in their carbon skeletons. Synthesis may take place either chemically or biologically, and both methods can be employed to manufacture terpenoids. Drugs generated from terpenoids may be synthesised using a number of chemical routes; these routes are all now serving vital roles in modern medicine. This review will cover the multiple medicinal benefits of terpenoids, as well as their extraction and separation, structural elucidation, biosynthesis, chemical synthesis, and biosynthesis.</p> 2023-11-25T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Yousaf Khan