Bryophytic flora of Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan


  • Sahibzada Ateeq Ur Rehman Hashmi Department of Botany, The University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir
  • Nirmala Pradhan Natural History Museum, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal


Muzaffarabad is located at 34o 23́́́́׳. 8״   N, 73o 28׳. 11״ E and 704 m above the sea level. The bryophytic vegetation of four sites randomly selected from Muzaffarabad was investigated for morphological characters. Total 12 samples were collected and identified viz. Funaria hygrometrica, Bryum argenteum, Rhodobryum giganteum, Tortula subulata, Tortula inermis, Ceretodon purpureus, Reboulia hemispherica, Marchantia paleacea, Riccia pathankotensis, Astrella multiflora, Porella pinnata and Phaeoceros laevis. Measurements of the specimen were done by using millimeter scale with microscope swift. The slides were prepared to study the micro-morphological characters of gametophytes and sporophytes. The morphology of the specimens was also observed by using Stereo microscope. All the identified samples were preserved and submitted to the AKASH Herbarium of Department of Botany, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Muzaffarabad.


Alam, A. 2011. Diversity and altitudinal distribution of terrestrial liverworts (Hepaticeae) in Nilgiri, Tamil Nadu, India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B, 81: 206-217.

Andersson, L. I. and Hakan, H. 1991. Bryophytes and decaying wood-a comparison between managed and natural forest. Holarctic Ecology, 14(2): 121-130.

Asghar, A. 1957. A list of the mosses of West Pakistan. Biologia, 3: 44-52.

Banu-Fatah, K. 2005. Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. (Funariaceae) from Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 34(2): 121-124.

California moss e-Floras. Tortula subulata. http:// Last accessed 22 Feb. 2021. university Herbarium, University of California, Berkeley.

Chopra, R. S. 1975. Taxonomy of Indian Mosses. Botany Monograph 10, Publicity and Information, Directorate, New Delhi, India.

Dandotiya, D., Govandapayari, H., Suman S., and Uniyal P. L. 2011. Checklist of the bryophytes of India. Archive for Bryology, 88: 1-126.

Dash, P. K. and Saxena, D. K. 2009. Bryoflora of Khandadhar Hill Ranges, Orissa, India. Geobios, 36: 113-116.

Eddy, A. 1988. A Handbook of Malesian Mosses, I. Natural History Museum (BM), London.

Eddy, A. 1990. A Handbook of Malesian Mosses, II. Natural History Museum (BM), London.

Eddy, A. 1996. A Handbook of Malesian Mosses, III. Natural History Museum (BM), London.

Fl. North America. Tortula inermis. Retrieved February 26, 2021. from

Muzaffarabad, Pakistan.

Fl. North America. Ceretodon purpureus. . Retrieved February 26, 2021. from Muzaffarabad, Pakistan.

Gangulee, H. C. 1969-1980. Mosses of Eastern India and Adjacent Regions. Fasc. 1-8:1-2145. Published by the author, Calcutta, India.

He, X., Sun Y., and Rui-Liang, Z. 2013. The oil bodies of Liverworts: Unique and important organelles in land plants. Taylor and Francis group, 32: 293-302.

Higuchi, M. and Nishimura, N. 2003. Mosses of Pakistan. Journal Hattori Botanical Laboratory. 93: 273-291.

Kashyap, S. R. 1972. Liverworts of the Western Himalayas and the Punjab Plane. Research Co. Pubs., Delhi.

Keceli, T. and Cetin, B. 2000. The moss flora of Cankiri-Eldivan Mountain. Turkish Journal of Botany, 24: 249-258.

Li Xing-Jiang, M. R. C. and He, S. (eds). 2007. Bryaceae-Timiaceae. In: moss Fl. China. Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden, Beijing, Newyork and St. Louis. 211 pp.

Long, D. G. 2006. Revision of the Genus Austerella P. Beauv. In Eurasia. Bryophytorum Biblotheca, Band 63 in Heinrichs (eds.).

Long, D. G. and Grolle, R. 1990. Hepaticae of Bhutan II. Journal Hattori Botanical Laboratory. 68: 381-440.

Menzel, M. and Passow-Schindhelm, R. 1990. The Mosses of Maldive Islands. Cryptogamie Bryolol. Lichen. 11: 363-367.

Moss Fl. Taiwan. Rhodobryum giganteum. Retrieved February 26, 2021.from Muzaffarabad, Pakistan.

Nair, M. C., Rajish, K. P. and Madhusoodanan, P. V. 2005. Bryophytes of Wayanad in Western Ghats. Malabar Natural History Society, Kozhiko, India. 284 pp.

Natcheva, R., Ganeva, A. and Spiridonov, G. 2006. Red list of the bryophytes in Bulgaria. Phytologia Balcanica, 12(1): 55-62.

Nishimura, N. and M. Higuchi. 1993. Checklist of Mosses of Pakistan. Cryptogamic Flora of Pakistan, 2: 275-299.

Oren, M., Uyar, G. and Kecli, T. 2007. The Bryophytic flora of Erdec, Bandirrma, Manyas District, (Balikesir, Turkey). International Journal of Botany, 3 (1): 1-14.

O,Shea, B. J. 2002. Checklist of the Mosses of Sri Lanka. Journal Hattori Botanical Laboratory. 92: 125-164.

Piipo, S. 1990. Annotated Catalogue of Chinese Hepaticae and Anthocerotae. Journal Hattori Botanical Laboratory. 68: 1-192.

Pradhan, N. 2000. Materials for a Checklist of Bryophytes of Nepal. The Natural History Museum, London.

Pradhan, N. and Joshi, S. D. 2009. Liverworts and hornworts of Nepal: A synopsis. Botanica Orientalis: Journal of Plant Science, 6: 69-75.

Pradhan, N. 2011. Approach to determine the diversity and conservation status of bryophytes in northern Sindhupalchok, District of Nepal. Last cited on 23 February, 2021.

Pradhan, N. 2023. Species Composition of Bryophytes at different altitudinal habitats in Langtang National Park, Bagmati Ptovince, Nepal Journal of Plant Resources. 21(1): 5-12.

Pradhan, N. and Shrestha, P. 2021. A Handbook of Bryophytes of Nepal. Department of Plant Resources. Ministry of Forest and Environment, Government of Nepal.

Rashid, A., Mishra, R. and Sharma, A. 2012. Bryophyte of District Rajouri-Jammu and Kashmir state India. Archive for Bryology, 145: 1-11.

Rooy, J. V. 2001. Introduction to Bryology in Southern Africa. Eleven Mosses to know. Plant life, 25: 37-40.

Sayre, G. 1941. A gum Arabic mounting medium. Bryologist, 44: 160-161.

Smith, A. J. E. 1996. The Liverworts of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Pp. 1-362.

Smith, A. J. E. 1982. Epiphyte and Epilith. In: A. J. E. Smith (eds). Bryophyte Ecology. New York: Chapman and Hall, pp. 191-128.

Tan, B. C. and Pocks, T. 2000. Biogeography and conservation of bryophytes. In A. J. Shaw and B. Goffinet. (eds.) Bryophyte Biology. Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom. 405 pp.

Townsend, C. C. 1993. New records and a bibliography of the mosses of Pakistan. Journal of Bryology, 17: 671-678.

Uyar, G. 2001. The moss flora of Ankara-Kizilcahamam Soguksu National park. Turkish Journal of Botany, 25: 261-273.

Vashishta, B. R., Sinha, A. K. and Kumar, A. 2004. Bryophyta. S. Chand and Company, Ram Nagar, New Delhi, India. 488 pp.

Verwimp, A. S. and Gruber, J. P. 2002. Orthotrichum (Orthotrichaceae, Bryopsida) in Pakistan. Tropical Bryology, 21: 1-9.

Zhu, R. L. and So, M. L. 1996. Mosses and Liverworts of Hong Kong Volume 2. Heavenly People Depot.




How to Cite

Hashmi, S. A. U. R., & Nirmala Pradhan. (2024). Bryophytic flora of Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Kashmir Journal of Science, 3(1). Retrieved from