Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Screening of Plantago Major L. and Plantago lenceolata L. From Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
The evaluation of quality and purity of crude drugs by means of various parameters is the most important aspect of Pharmacognosy. Regardless of the modern techniques, identification of plant drug by the pharmacognostic study is more reliable. Plantago is one of the important genera of medicinal plants having many traditional uses. The present study was aimed to establish the pharmacognosy and phytochemical studies of P. major and P. lanceolata. Pharmacognosy includes the macroscopic, microscopic and physiochemical analysis. Both the plants were herbs with an average height of 34.00±7.30 and 44.80±1.56 cm respectively. Leaves were amphistomatic and stomata were anisocytic and diacytic type. Moisture content was 78.43±0.06 and 47.00±0.06 % in P. major and P. lanceolate respectively. Total ash was 0.38±0.01 and 0.33±0.03 mg/g respectively. Water-soluble ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble extractives, chloroform-soluble extractives, ethanol soluble extractives, and petroleum soluble extractives were also determined. Higher water-soluble extractives were observed in P. major (42.00±0.03 %) followed by P. lanceolata (37.00±0.02 %). Other extractives were less in amount. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, and carbohydrates. Total phenolic contents were 0.95±0.20 and 0.44±0.12 mg/g in P. major and P. lanceolata respectively. Total flavonoid contents in P. major and P. laneolata were 0.69±0.05 and 0.80±0.15 mg/g respectively. This study can serve as an appreciated source of information and provide proper standards for the identification of P. major and P. lanceolata in future surveys and submissions.